**Electronics and Mathematics | Digital Electronics | Integrated Circuits**

**Digital Electronics**

**Digital electronic circuits**operate with voltages of two logic levels namely Logic Low and Logic High. The range of voltages corresponding to Logic Low is represented with ‘0’. Similarly, the range of voltages corresponding to Logic High is represented with ‘1’. The basic digital electronic circuit that has one or more inputs and single output is known as

**Logic gate**. Hence, the Logic gates are the building blocks of any digital system. We can classify these Logic gates into the following three categories.

- Basic gates
- Universal gates
- Special gates

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A**Digital Logic Gate**is an electronic circuit which makes logical decisions based on the combination of

**digital signals**present on its inputs. Digital logic gates can have more than one input but generally only have one digital output. Individual logic gates can be connected or cascaded together to form a logic gate function with any desired number of inputs, or to form combinational and sequential type circuits, or to produce different logic gate functions from standard gates. Standard commercially available digital logic gates are --

- Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)
- Complementary Metal-Oxide-Silicon (CMOS)
- Resistor-Transistor Logic (RTL)
- Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL)
- Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL)

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**Integrated Circuits**

**Integrated Circuits **or IC’s as they are more commonly called, can be grouped together into families according to the number of transistors or “gates” that they contain. We can classify the integrated circuits into --

- Small Scale Integration (SSI)
- Medium Scale Integration (MSI)
- Large Scale Integration (LSI)
- Very-Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
- Super-Large Scale Integration (SLSI)
- Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI)

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